The functional characteristics and applications of ALLTOP solar street lamps
1. Functional characteristics of solar street lamps
Urban road lighting is closely related to people's production and life.With the acceleration of urbanization in China, green, efficient, environmentally friendly and long-lived LED street lamps have gradually entered people's production and life.The biggest advantage of solar energy road lighting is that it does not need to erect power lines, dig trenches, lay cables, or assign personnel to manage and control them. It can be conveniently installed in urban roads, plazas, parks, parking lots and expressways.Compared with the traditional lighting lamps and lanterns, high brightness LED lighting light source, its small volume, light weight, good directivity, resistant to various bad weather conditions, in terms of power consumption, service life and environmental protection have other source incomparable superiority, coupled with the solar lamps and lanterns of energy efficiency and easy installation, maintenance, will lead us into the new era of green lighting.The solar street lamp is composed of solar panels, batteries, high-brightness lamps, controllers and other components. The moving parts are very few during normal operation, and there is basically no noise.The control circuit in the solar street lamp controller, its function is basically the same as that of the ordinary street lamp controller, is to complete the operation of the black light, dawn lights off, the difference is more than a charge and discharge management of the battery.There are three kinds of street lamp controllers, such as single light controller, clock controller and warp and weft controller, which have different working principles and advantages and disadvantages.
1.1 Independent light controller
The light controller adopts photosensitive probe, and automatically opens the street lamp when the dark light is weak.In the early morning, when the east shows the fish-belly white, automatically turn off the street lamp, can achieve the role of automatic control.The early optical switch uses discrete semiconductor components, and the circuit is complex and the failure rate is high.With the development of semiconductor technology, time - based integrated circuit has appeared, which simplifies the optical switch circuit, and photosensitive probe is the key component of optical switch.
1.2 Clock controller
The controller should set the switching time in advance to make the street lamp turn on and off on time, so as to achieve the purpose of automatic control and electricity saving.Its advantage is that the pre-set switch is interfered by the external light, in addition to its own fault, there will be no wrong action, the disadvantage is that it cannot automatically change the switch time according to seasonal changes and special weather conditions, the need to set a special person to adjust the switch time, such as: winter and spring earlier dark, dawn later;Summer and autumn dawn earlier, dark later;After midnight on the road less vehicles, pedestrians, should reduce the number of lights, to the dawn will be lit again, in order to facilitate traffic safety and energy saving.The timing switch in the clock controller is divided into mechanical timepiece and electronic clock phenotype two: the former is dominated by quartz clock, walking time is accurate, but because the plastic gear used in the movement will be deformed at high temperature, resulting in the travel time is not allowed or even stop;Latter time switch LR6818, LM8650 integration as the center piece of commonly used electronic clock circuit, also appeared in recent years, a kind of electronic clock circuit board and LED LCD is an organic whole to integrated block, six group switch point can be set up, and have the function of week, many components manufacturers to produce this product, is now mostly used in street lamp controller.
1.3 Warp and weft controller
The warp and weft controller adopts the single chip microcomputer technology to simulate the sunshine law, and can automatically turn on the light when it is dark, and automatically turn off the light in the morning.It adopts the advantages of the light-controlled switch, overcomes the disadvantages of the light-controlled switch being disturbed by the outside world, absorbs the advantages of the clock controller's time accuracy, and avoids the disadvantages of the timing switch not changing the switching time automatically.At present, many large and medium-sized city street lamp mostly uses this kind of control method, shortcoming is the price is higher.
2. Functional characteristics and applications of solar street lamp components
In the development of new energy, it is universally acknowledged that solar power generation has the highest technological content and the most promising development prospect.Solar power generation mainly consists of solar thermal power generation and solar light power generation.This paper focuses on solar power generation.Solar photovoltaic power generation is the direct conversion of solar light energy into electric power generation. It can be divided into photovoltaic power generation, optical induction power generation, photochemical power generation and photobiological power generation.At present, the most widely used photovoltaic power generation is to directly convert the photovoltaic effect generated by the light shining on the solar panel into direct current energy output. Its structure is generally composed of solar panels, batteries, controllers, inverters and supports and other components.The disadvantages of photovoltaic power generation are: high initial investment cost;Lower energy density;Intermittent power generation;Greatly affected by climatic conditions (cloudy and rainy days can not generate electricity);Photovoltaic power generation is mainly used in three aspects at present, namely: to provide power for places without power supply;Grid-connected power generation;Manufacture solar electronic products, such as all kinds of solar chargers, solar lamps (including solar street lamps), solar water heaters, etc.
2.1 Basic features and applications of solar cell panels
To get as much solar energy as possible from the sun during the year, install the panels at the right Angle.Through the calculation of special model, the monthly mean solar radiation amount can be obtained. The solar radiation amount varies greatly on inclined planes with different angles. Therefore, when installing solar panel modules, the inclination Angle suitable for the local location should be selected through experiments to obtain the maximum solar radiation amount.
2.2 Basic characteristics of solar battery and its application
Solar cells are energy storage devices for solar panels, which store the energy generated by the panels when the sun is shining for use at night or on rainy days.The battery bank is composed of a number of batteries in series and in parallel. Its capacity requires that it can meet the demand of streetlamp's power supply time and power supply in the days without solar radiation.At present, lead-acid batteries are commonly used in China, and cadmium-Nickel batteries can also be used in important occasions, but the latter is expensive.Battery storage is chemical energy, it will direct current electric energy into chemical energy storage, when the need to change chemical energy into electrical energy release, visible energy conversion process is reversible, the former is called battery charging, the latter is called battery discharge.Therefore, in the photovoltaic power generation system, the battery plays the role of storage and regulation (release) for the electric energy generated by the system.As the power output of the PHOTOVOLTAIC power generation system changes every day, the battery can also provide relatively stable electricity in case of insufficient sunlight or the need to maintain the photovoltaic power generation system.
2.3 Basic characteristics and applications of solar lighting fixtures
As LED is dc power supply device, it is easy to be made into DC lamps, which are widely used in DC systems, such as solar lamps.It has a flat type high brightness LED, a single beam of light type high brightness LED peace light type and light type high brightness LED, the combination of three due to a single beam of light type high brightness LED luminous tube produced by directional light is too strong, comprehensive visual effect is poorer, therefore, should be the preferred flat type high brightness LED or flat type and light type high brightness LED combination, multiple leds together, has certain rules of permutation and combination into the LED light source, as a solar street lamp lighting lamps and lanterns.
2.4 Protection energy of solar street lamps with overcharge and over discharge
In the application of solar street lamps, attention should be paid to its battery overcharge and overdischarge control.The so-called overcharge control is to disconnect the charging circuit in time when the battery is in overcharge state, while over discharge control is to disconnect the discharging circuit in time when the battery is in over discharge state, in order to protect the battery and extend its service life.Is used as the basis of a charge and discharge the battery voltage level changes: when sunny day with the sun light energy absorbed by the solar photovoltaic panels by the relay switch is normally closed to the battery, when the battery voltage is higher than 26 v battery storage place to overcharge state, following the electric switch normally closed some broken open, and normally open or closed, charging circuit automatically disconnect, closed to the battery charging, overcharge protection functions;At night, the battery supplies power to the street lamp. When the voltage of the battery is lower than 22V, the battery is in the over-discharge state, and the relay switch is transferred from the normally closed point to the normally open point. The discharge circuit is automatically disconnected, stopping the power supply to the load (street lamp), and the over-discharge protection power is realized.